CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology

IRI:
http://purl.org/spar/cito/
Date:
22/05/2014
Current version:
2.6.3
Previous version:
http://imageweb.zoo.ox.ac.uk/pub/2009/citobase/cito-20100528-1.6/cito-content/cito.owl
Previous version:
https://svn.code.sf.net/p/sempublishing/code/CiTO/2014-05-22-cito-2_6_3.owl (visualise it with LODE)
Authors:
David Shotton
Silvio Peroni
Contributors:
Paolo Ciccarese
Tim Clark
Imported Ontologies:
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/situation.owl (visualise it with LODE)
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for the characterization of citations, both factually and rhetorically. It forms part of SPAR, a suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies. Other SPAR ontologies are described at http://purl.org/spar/.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Annotation Properties
  5. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL to enable characterization of the nature or type of citations, both factually and rhetorically, and to permit these descriptions to be published on the Web.

The citations characterized may be either direct and explicit (as in the reference list of a journal article), indirect (e.g. a citation to a more recent paper by the same research group on the same topic), or implicit (e.g. as in artistic quotations or parodies, or in cases of plagiarism).

CiTO contains the object property cito:cites and its sub-properties, and its inverse property cito:isCitedBy, from the original Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO v1.6. Upon the creation of version 2.0 of CiTO, a number of new sub-properties of cito:cites were added, and the inverse properties of all the sub-properties of cito:cites were created, all of which are sub-properties of cito:isCitedBy. The ontology has also been integrated with the SWAN Discourse Relationships Ontology by making cito:cites a sub-property of http://purl.org/swan/2.0/discourse-relationships/refersTo.

Restrictions of domain and range present in the previous version of CiTO were removed from the object properties when creating CiTO v 2.0, permitting its independent use in other contexts, in addition to conventional bibliographic citations.

So that they can be used independently, other entities that were previously included in CiTO v1.6 have now been made components of other SPAR ontologies: FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology; C4O, the Citation Counting and Context Characterization Ontology; and PSO, the Publication Status Ontology.

The addition of two new properties:cito:usesConclusionsFrom and its inverse cito:providesConclusionsFor on 09Dec2011 led to a version number increment from v2.0 to v2.1.

The addition of two additional properties, cito:compiles and cito:isCompiledBy, previously in the deprecated CiTO4Data ontology, on 03 July 2012 led to a version increment from v2.1 to v2.2.

Subsequent expansions include:

in versions 2.3 and 2.4 the addition of the object properties cito:citesAsPotentialSolution, cito:citesAsRecommended, cito:repliesTo, cito:retracts, cito:speculates on, and their inverse properties;

in v2.5 the addition of cito:CitationAct, cito:hasCitationEvent, cito:hasCitedEntity and cito:hasCitingEntity;

in v 2.6:

renaming cito:hasCitationEvent to become cito:hasCitationCharacterization;

improving definitions of cito:CitationAct, cito:hasCitationCharacterization, cito:hasCitedEntity and cito:hasCitingEntity;

revising the definition of cito:isCompiledBy to correct it and bring it into line with the DataCite Metadata Kernel v2.2 definition;

changing the definition of cito:sharesAuthorsWith from 'An object property indicating that the citing entity has at least one author in common with the cited entity.' to 'An object property between two entities indicating that they have at least one author in common.' so that it can be used when one entity does not actually cite the other;

adding the object properties cito:hasRelatedEntity, cito:sharesFundingAgencyWith and cito:sharesAuthorInstitutionWith;

and adding the text 'An object property indicating that . . .' at the beginning of the textual definition (rdfs:comment) for each CiTO object property.

in v 2.6.1:

Removed text 'An object property indicating that . . .' added in v 2.6 at the beginning of the textual definition (rdfs:comment) for each CiTO object property, so that each definition is just a direct statement of the relationship.

Removed the property cito:hasRelatedEntity (in favour of using dcterms:relation).

Renamed cito:hasReply to become cito:hasReplyFrom.

Improved the textual definitions of cito:derides and its inverse property.

in v 2.6.2:

Improved definitions of of cito:CitationAct, cito:hasCitationCharacterization, cito:hasCitedEntity and cito:hasCitingEntity.

in v 2.6.3:

Added examples for each citation type (i.e., all the subproperties of cito:cites).

Classes

citation actc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/CitationAct

A citation act is a performative act of making a citation from a citing entity to a cited entity, typically instantiated by the inclusion of a bibliographic reference or a data reference in the reference list of the citing entity.

This CiTO class and its accompanying object properties cito:hasCitingEntity, cito:hasCitationCharacterization and cito:hasCitedEntity can be employed to reify direct citation act statements made using the CiTO citation object property cito:cites or one of its sub-properties. For example, the following RDF statement:

:paperA cito:extends :paperB .

can be alternatively described as follows:

:thisCitation a cito:CitationAct ;

cito:hasCitingEntity :paperA ;

cito:hasCitationCharacterization cito:extends ;

cito:hasCitedEntity :paperB .

This usage involved OWL2 punning, whenby a CiTO object property, such as the aforementioned cito:extends, is used as the object of the OWL assertion

:thisCitation cito:hasCitationCharacterization cito:extends .

Using such OWL2 punning (described at http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/WD-owl2-new-features-20090611/#F12:_Punning), the CiTO object property is considered as a proper named individual of the class owl:Thing.

Such reification of citation acts can be very useful, since it permits one to combine these CiTO properties with other vocabularies, or to handle situations in which none of the citation characterizations available in CiTO are applicable. Such situations can be resolved by the creation of a user-defined citation characterization, for example by using the Open Annotation Data Model, as explained at http://semanticpublishing.wordpress.com/2013/07/03/extending-cito-for-open-annotations/.

is equivalent to
situation and (has citation characterizationop exactly 1) and (has cited entityop exactly 1) and (has citing entityop exactly 1)

Object Properties

agrees withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/agreesWith

The citing entity agrees with statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is agreed with byop

Example: We share Galileo's opinion: the Earth moves [X].

citesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/cites

The citing entity cites the cited entity, either directly and explicitly (as in the reference list of a journal article), indirectly (e.g. by citing a more recent paper by the same group on the same topic), or implicitly (e.g. as in artistic quotations or parodies, or in cases of plagiarism).

cites as authorityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsAuthority

The citing entity cites the cited entity as one that provides an authoritative description or definition of the subject under discussion.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as authority byop

Example: Newton asserted that we are like dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants [X].

cites as data sourceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsDataSource

The citing entity cites the cited entity as source of data.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as data source byop

Example: Italy has more than ten thousand kilometers of shoreline: see [X].

cites as evidenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsEvidence

The citing entity cites the cited entity as source of factual evidence for statements it contains.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as evidence byop

Example: We found an unquestionable demonstration of our hypothesis in [X].

cites as metadata documentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsMetadataDocument

The citing entity cites the cited entity as being the container of metadata describing the citing entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as metadata document byop

Example: Basic bibliographic, entity and project metadata relating to this article, recorded in a structured machine-readable form, is available as an additional file [X] accompanying this paper.

cites as potential solutionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsPotentialSolution

The citing entity cites the cited entity as providing or containing a possible solution to the issues being discussed.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as potential solution byop

Example: This risk could be avoided using the approach shown in [X].

cites as recommended readingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsRecommendedReading

The citing entity cites the cited entity as an item of recommended reading. This property can be used, for example, to describe references in a lecture reading list, where the cited references are relevant to the general topic of the lecture, but might not be individually cited within the text of the lecture. Similarly, it could be used to describe items in a 'Suggested further reading' list at the end of a book chapter.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as recommended readingop

Example: To our knowledge, [X] is the best source of exercises about UML, making it a valuable proposal for beginners.

cites as relatedop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsRelated

The citing entity cites the cited entity as one that is related.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as related byop

Example: An analysis similar to what we proposed here is presented in [X].

cites as source documentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesAsSourceDocument

The citing entity cites the cited entity as being the entity from which the citing entity is derived, or about which the citing entity contains metadata.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited as source document byop

Example: Several sections of this work are based on our literature review of the topic published as journal article [X].

cites for informationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/citesForInformation

The citing entity cites the cited entity as a source of information on the subject under discussion.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is cited for information byop

Example: The grammar of Pascal was introduced in [X].

compilesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/compiles

The citing entity is used to create or compile the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is compiled byop

Example: This book gathers interviews with academic researchers of several disciplines [X].

confirmsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/confirms

The citing entity confirms facts, ideas or statements presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is confirmed byop

Example: Our findings are similar to those published in [X].

contains assertion fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/containsAssertionFrom

The citing entity contains a statement of fact or a logical assertion (or a collection of such facts and/or assertions) originally present in the cited entity. This object property is designed to be used to relate a separate abstract, summary or nanopublication to the cited entity upon which it is based.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
provides assertion forop

Example: We think that to stand on the top of giants [X] is a valuable principle to follow for our own research.

correctsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/corrects

The citing entity corrects statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is corrected byop

Example: The result published in [X] is partially wrong, the correct result is 42.

creditsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/credits

The citing entity acknowledges contributions made by the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is credited byop

Example: Galileo was the first to observe Jupiter's satellites [X].

critiquesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/critiques

The citing entity critiques statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is critiqued byop

Example: The ideas presented in [X] are badly substantantiated.

deridesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/derides

The citing entity express derision for the cited entity, or for ideas or conclusions contained within it.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is derided byop

Example: The ideas published in [X] are incredibly stupid.

describesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/describes

The citing entity describes the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is described byop

Example: Galileo's book [X] is a dialog among three scientists about Copernicus' eliocentric theory.

disagrees withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/disagreesWith

The citing entity disagrees with statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is disagreed with byop

Example: We do not share Galileo's opinion [X]: the Earth does not move.

discussesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/discusses

The citing entity discusses statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is discussed byop

Example: We now examine if Galileo is right when he writes [X] that the Earth moves.

disputesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/disputes

The citing entity disputes statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is disputed byop

Example: We doubt that Galileo is right when he writes [X] that the Earth moves.

documentsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/documents

The citing entity documents information about the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is documented byop

Example: Herein we report in detail the complete set of ontological rules defined in the Overlapping Ontology [X].

extendsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/extends

The citing entity extends facts, ideas or understandings presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is extended byop

Example: We add to Galileo's findings concerning the Earth [X] that also the Moon moves.

gives background toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/givesBackgroundTo

The cited entity provides background information for the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
obtains background fromop

gives support toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/givesSupportTo

The cited entity provides intellectual or factual support for the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
obtains support fromop

has citation characterizationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/hasCitationCharacterization

A property that links a cito:CitationAct to its characterization made by using a CiTO citation characterization property such as cito:extends.

This usage involved OWL2 punning, whenby a CiTO object property, such as the aforementioned cito:extends, is used as the object of an OWL assertion:

:thisCitation cito:hasCitationCharacterization cito:extends .

In such cases of OWL punning, the CiTO object properties are simultaneously considered both as normal object properties and also as proper named individuals of the class owl:Thing.

has super-properties
is setting for

has cited entityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/hasCitedEntity

A property that relates a citation act to the entity that is the target of that citation.

has super-properties
is setting for

has citing entityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/hasCitingEntity

The citation act relates to the entity containing that citation.

has super-properties
is setting for

has replyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/hasReplyFrom

The cited entity evokes a reply from the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
replies toop

includes excerpt fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/includesExcerptFrom

The citing entity includes one or more excerpts from the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
provides excerpt forop

An excerpt is more general than a quotation. It is generally used to indicate a re-published extract from a book, instruction manual, film, radio programme, etc, that need not be what someone said. For example:

Oxford 01865

Oxshott 01372

Oxted 01883

Oxton 01578

is an excerpt from the UK Dialling Codes section of the Oxford Telephone Directory.

includes quotation fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/includesQuotationFrom

The citing entity includes one or more quotations from the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
provides quotation forop

A quotation is a repetition of what someone has said, and is presented "within quotation marks", for example:

On June 4th 1940, Winston Churchill made a speech on the radio that has since become famous, that included the words: " . . . we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender . . ."

is agreed with byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isAgreedWithBy

The cited entity contains statements, ideas or conclusions with which the citing entity agrees.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
agrees withop

is cited as authority byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsAuthorityBy

The cited entity is cited as providing an authoritative description or definition of the subject under discussion in the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as authorityop

is cited as data source byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsDataSourceBy

The cited entity is cited as a data source by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as data sourceop

is cited as evidence byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsEvidenceBy

The cited entity is cited for providing factual evidence to the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as evidenceop

is cited as metadata document byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsMetadataDocumentBy

The cited entity is cited as being the container of metadata relating to the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as metadata documentop

is cited as potential solution byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsPontentialSolutionBy

The cited entity is cited as providing or containing a possible solution to the issues being discussed in the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as potential solutionop

is cited as recommended readingop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsRecommendedReading

The cited entity is cited by the citing entity as an item of recommended reading. This property can be used, for example, to describe references in a lecture reading list, where the cited references are relevant to the general topic of the lecture, but might not be individually cited within the text of the lecture. Similarly, it could be used to describe items in a 'Suggested further reading' list at the end of a book chapter.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as recommended readingop

is cited as related byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsRelatedBy

The cited entity is cited as being related to the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as relatedop

is cited as source document byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedAsSourceDocumentBy

The cited entity is cited as being the entity from which the citing entity is derived, or about which the citing entity contains metadata.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites as source documentop

is cited byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedBy

The cited entity (the subject of the RDF triple) is cited by the citing entity (the object of the triple).

is cited for information byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCitedForInformationBy

The cited entity is cited as a source of information on the subject under discussion in the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
cites for informationop

is compiled byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCompiledBy

The cited entity is the result of a compile or creation event using the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
compilesop

Note: This property has been imported from the CiTO4Data ontology, usage of which has been deprecated.

is confirmed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isConfirmedBy

The cited entity presents facts, ideas or statements that are confirmed by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
confirmsop

is corrected byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCorrectedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are corrected by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
correctsop

is credited byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCreditedBy

The cited entity makes contributions that are acknowledged by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
creditsop

is critiqued byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isCritiquedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are critiqued by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
critiquesop

is derided byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isDeridedBy

The cited entity contains ideas or conclusions for which the citing entity express derision.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
deridesop

is described byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isDescribedBy

The cited entity is described by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
describesop

is disagreed with byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isDisagreedWithBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are disagreed with by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
disagrees withop

is discussed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isDiscussedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are discussed by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
discussesop

is disputed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isDisputedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are disputed by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
disputesop

is documented byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isDocumentedBy

Information about the cited entity is documented by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
documentsop

is extended byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isExtendedBy

The cited entity presents facts, ideas or understandings that are extended by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
extendsop

is parodied byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isParodiedBy

The characteristic style or content of the cited entity is imitated by the citing entity for comic effect, usually without explicit citation.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
parodiesop

is plagiarized byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isPlagiarizedBy

The cited entity is plagiarized by the author of the citing entity, who includes within the citing entity textual or other elements from the cited entity without formal acknowledgement of their source. The cited entity is thus not explicitly cited from within the citing entity, according to the norms of scholarly practice, but is cited implicitly.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
plagiarizesop

is qualified byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isQualifiedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are qualified or have conditions placed upon them by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
qualifiesop

is refuted byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isRefutedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are refuted by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
refutesop

is retracted byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isRetractedBy

The cited entity is formally retracted by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
retractsop

is reviewed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isReviewedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas or conclusions that are reviewed by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
reviewsop

is ridiculed byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isRidiculedBy

The cited entity or aspects of its contents are ridiculed by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
ridiculesop

is speculated on byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isSpeculatedOnBy

The cited entity is cited because the citing article contains speculations on its content or ideas.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
speculates onop

is supported byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isSupportedBy

The cited entity receives intellectual or factual support from the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
supportsop

is updated byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/isUpdatedBy

The cited entity presents statements, ideas, hypotheses or understanding that are updated by the cited entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
updatesop

likesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/likes

A property that permits you to express appreciation of or interest in something that is the object of the RDF triple, or to express that it is worth thinking about even if you do not agree with its content, enabling social media 'likes' statements to be encoded in RDF. Use of this property does NOT imply the existence of a formal citation of the entity that is 'liked'.

obtains background fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/obtainsBackgroundFrom

The citing entity obtains background information from the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
gives background toop

Example: There is a need for more observational studies and studies using narrative causation to describe the potential contribution of information in problem-solving and decision-making [X]; our work addresses these needs.

obtains support fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/obtainsSupportFrom

The citing entity obtains intellectual or factual support from the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
gives support toop

Example: Our ideas were also shared by Doe et al. [X].

parodiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/parodies

The citing entity imitates the characteristic style or content of the cited entity for comic effect, usually without explicit citation.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is parodied byop

Example: We act as giants on the shoulders of dwarfs [X]!

plagiarizesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/plagiarizes

A property indicating that the author of the citing entity plagiarizes the cited entity, by including textual or other elements from the cited entity without formal acknowledgement of their source. The citing entity thus contains no explicit citation of the cited entity, according to the norms of scholarly practice, but cites it implicitly.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is plagiarized byop

Example: The conclusion of our dissertation can be summarised by the following motto, we created specifically for this purpose: we are like dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants.

provides assertion forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/providesAssertionFor

The cited entity contains and is the original source of a statement of fact or a logical assertion (or a collection of such facts and/or assertions) that is to be found in the citing entity. This inverse object property is designed to be used to relate a cited entity to a separate abstract, summary or nanopublication based upon it.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
contains assertion fromop

provides conclusions forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/providesConclusionsFor

The cited entity presents conclusions that are used in work described in the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
uses conclusions fromop

provides data forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/providesDataFor

The cited entity presents data that are used in work described in the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
uses data fromop

provides excerpt forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/providesExcerptFor

The cited entity contains information, usually of a textual nature, that is excerpted by (used as an excerpt within) the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
includes excerpt fromop

provides method forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/providesMethodFor

The cited entity details a method that is used in work described by the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
uses method inop

provides quotation forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/providesQuotationFor

The cited entity contains information, usually of a textual nature, that is quoted by (used as a quotation within) the citing entity.

has super-properties
is cited byop
is inverse of
includes quotation fromop

qualifiesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/qualifies

The citing entity qualifies or places conditions or restrictions upon statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is qualified byop

Example: Galileo's masterpiece 'Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo' [X] is formally a dialog and substantially a scientific pamphlet.

refutesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/refutes

The citing entity refutes statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is refuted byop

Example: We do not think that all their arguments in favour of their own and against the other strategies are equally convincing [X].

replies toop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/repliesTo

The citing entity replies to statements, ideas or criticisms presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
has replyop

Example: We will not investigate the issues of the approach proposed in [X] here, but rather we introduce yet another alternative.

retractsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/retracts

The citing entity constitutes a formal retraction of the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is retracted byop

Example: We wrote that the Earth moves in [X]; we now retire such statement.

reviewsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/reviews

The citing entity reviews statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is reviewed byop

Example: This paper discusses Toulmin's methodology in modelling argumentation [X], focussing on highlighting advantages and drawbacks of the application of such a methodology in the Social Web.

ridiculesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/ridicules

The citing entity ridicules the cited entity or aspects of its contents.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is ridiculed byop

Example: Galileo said that the Earth "moves" [X]; really? And where is it going?

shares author institution withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/sharesAuthorInstitutionWith

Each entity has at least one author that shares a common institutional affiliation with an author of the other entity.

shares authors withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/sharesAuthorsWith

Each entity has at least one author in common with the other entity.

has characteristics: symmetric

has super-properties
top object propertyop

shares funding agency withop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/sharesFundingAgencyWith

The two entities result from activities that have been funded by the same funding agency.

speculates onop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/speculatesOn

The citing entity speculates on something within or related to the cited entity, without firm evidence.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is speculated on byop

Example: We believe that if Galileo believed that Earth goes around the Sun [X], he also should believe that Moon goes around Earth.

supportsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/supports

The citing entity provides intellectual or factual support for statements, ideas or conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is supported byop

Example: We support Galileo's statement [X], that Earth moves.

updatesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/updates

The citing entity updates statements, ideas, hypotheses or understanding presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
is updated byop

Example: Earth moves, said Galileo [X]; in addition, we can say now it moves very fast.

uses conclusions fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/usesConclusionsFrom

The citing entity describes work that uses conclusions presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
provides conclusions forop

Example: Building upon Galileo's findings [X], we discovered that all the planets move.

uses data fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/usesDataFrom

The citing entity describes work that uses data presented in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
provides data forop

Example: Using the information collected from our recent study [X], we can estimate that there are tens of millions of HTML forms with potentially useful deep-web content.

uses method inop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/usesMethodIn

The citing entity describes work that uses a method detailed in the cited entity.

has super-properties
citesop
is inverse of
provides method forop

Example: We follow [X] in using design patterns for testing.

Annotation Properties

commentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#comment

contributorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor

creatorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator

dateap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label

prior versionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#priorVersion

rightsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

version infoap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#versionInfo

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://purl.org/spar/cito/
cito
http://purl.org/spar/cito/cito:
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
discourse-relationships
http://purl.org/swan/2.0/discourse-relationships/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
sit
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/situation.owl#
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.